Filmic tropes and language.
- Extreme Long Shot:
An extreme long shot is generally used to establish a scene with no specific focus of interest. They lack human/physical presence and are mostly shot on a wide angle lens.
- VLS – Very Long Shot:
This type of shot involves showing indistinguishable figures from a very long distance. You can vaguely make the figures out.
- LS – Long Shot:
Within a long shot, figures tend to become more recognisable which give more reading and detail in to the narrative. Long shots are generally centralised with a central focus, however rules can change.
- MLS – Medium Long Shot:
A medium long shot generally features an individual cut off at mid knee height.
- MS – Mid Shot:
Shot from the waist upwards.
- MCU – Medium close up:
Shot from the chest upwards.
- CU – Close up
Features the whole of the head.
- BCU – Big close up
Always features a close up of the head
- ECU – Extreme close up
An extreme close up brings a greater sense of suspense.
- High Camera Angle –
This technique is used shot from above and is used to make focuses look small, weak unimportant or under threat.
- Low camera angle –
This technique is shot from above and used to make focuses look more important and incontrol.
- Medium Camera Angle –
Height of the person framed/ the camera moves whenever they move.
- POV – Point of view –
1st person perspective – This technique puts the audience in the front seat and makes them feel apart of the scene from the eyes of the camera.
3rd person – Over the shoulder shots make the audience seem as though they are the invisible person onlooking/a fly on the wall.
- Dissolve – A technique that transitions between two shots, one shot fades away to the other. This can be used to connect two different time lines, a change in time or location and creates a strong connection between the two.
- Fade – A technique that transitions from a shot that fades in or out from black.
From black – brighter = fade in
Image fades from light to dark = fade out.
By using this technique the directors aim to make the viewer recognise where they were and where they arrive.
- Ccuts – Camera cuts change the perspective from which a scene is portrayed.
- Jump cut – Making an abrupt transition from one scene to another which disrupts the time of flow or movement. They tend to miss a key piece of information and become very noticeable to the viewer. Directors use jump cuts to bring unease and disruption.
- PAN – Sweeping movement from one place to another, Pans can be expansive.
- Tilt – Using a camera up or down to create action.
- Zoom – zoom in/out – best to use sparingly as can disrupt filming experience.
- Deep focus – a shot that keeps the foreground, middle ground and background all in focus, generally sharp.
- Arc shot – A shot in which the subject is circled by the camera.
- Tracking shot – A shot using a dolly that follows a subject from behind or alongside or infront of the subject.
- Dolly zoom – When the camera tracks forward to a subject whilst zooming in/out creating a nausea effect.
- Locked down shot – A shot where the camera is fixed in one position.
- Handheld shot – Camera operator holds the camera during motion to create jerking or movement.