Research – Youth Migration

Why do youths decide to migrate?

Youth migration is mainly down to several factors which could be political, social or economical.The main reason youth migration exists is due to the height of unfairness in society for labour sided opportunities, income and human rights.

Life choices and changes mean that younger generations choose to migrate due to higher education, employment or getting married. The desire for adventure and new experiences  leave many young people with the choice to be able to pursue higher education in a different country and experience a different way of life.

Travel for the younger generation has been made much more accessible due to the internet, social media, making contacts and so on which gives more inspiration and access to the better opportunities of moving abroad to work, travel or study.
Social media networks such as facebook, twitter, youtube etc have had a great impact on youth migration as it means people can stay in touch much more and encourages stays to become longer as contact with home is much easier than it used to be.

The impact of youth migration on Communities.

Youth migration effects both the older and younger generations of the people left behind in the home countries. Younger people who decide to migrate generally make a better living for themselves and therefore their families and loved ones back home.
In other backgrounds, women’s authorities are made stronger which reinforces gender equality.

Effects on place of origin.

The place of origin is affected positively in the way that the economy saves money and also the sociability. A negative is that the opportunities for the highly skills citizens could be taken away from them which is most obvious in health and education sectors of countries.

Positive effects

– Migration can provide youth with work opportunities not available in their places of origin.

– The exit of jobseekers may ease domestic pressures linked to excess labour supply.

-Migration may empower young women and reinforce equitable gender norms.

-Migration for reasons related to education or employment can allow girls to avoid marriage at a young age.

-The inflow of remittances may contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction in countries of origin and may also stimulate investment in human capital.

-Diasporas can be a source of technology transfer, investments and venture capital for countries of origin.

-Diasporas frequently assist in emergency relief in their countries of origin.

-The physical or ‘virtual’ return of skilled workers translates into increases in local human capital, skills transfer and foreign network connections.

Negative effects

– Migration often results in the loss of highly skilled workers and a reduction in the quality of essential services.

– Economic growth and productivity decline with reductions in the stock of high-skilled labour.

– In places of origin, returns on public investments in education are lower.

– The absence of parents may increase the vulnerability of youth left behind, and adolescents commonly experience difficulties in their social relations and will isolate themselves in small peer groups who are in a like situation.

– Youth left behind by their parents commonly experience increased demands as they must assume responsibilities previously assumed by their parents. This can lead to declines in academic performance and exit from school altogether.

– Remittances coupled with limited parental supervision may be linked to a higher probability of risky behavior among youth left behind.

– Migration may expose youth—especially young women—to higher risks of abuse, discrimination and exploitation.

Source: Extrapolated from online consultations and based in part on information obtained from De la Garza, (2010); Temin and others (2013); United Nations (2004).

http://www.unworldyouthreport.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&layout=item&id=87&Itemid=228
United Nations world youth report, Tuesday, 04 February 2014 18:43

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